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The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

 A Chronological Guide


Reproduced with permission from Islamic Publications (PVT) Ltd. Lahore (Pakistan) from the book "Muhammad The Benefactor of Humanity (pbuh) by Naeem Siddiqi  (Translated by Rahim Ali Hashmi)

An Abridged English Version of Mohsin-e-Insaniyat

1. Prophet's birth In the spring season Monday is the agreed day. 1st year of Am-ul-Feel. 50 days after the event of the elephant, corresponding to 22nd April, 
570 AD, 1st Jaith 628 Bikrami before sunrise, popularly known to be 12 Rabi I.
The date is a matter of controbersy, but most researchers lean to the 9th Rabi I, as Monday also falls on that date. Other dates suggest are 10 and 13 Rabi I. Some have also suggested 8. But the majority of scholars' view favours 9.
2. Nursing At the age of 4 months. 2-3 days after birth, he was suckled by Thaubia, a slave girl of Abu Lahab. Permanent nursing period spent at the desert home of Halima S'adia
3. Death of Prophet's mother. At the age of 6 years.  
4. Death of his grandfather. At the age of 8 years 2 months 10 days.  
5. First journey to Syria with Hazrat Abu Talib. At the age of 12 years 2 months The episode of Bahira, the Monk, is connected with this journey.
6. Participation in the battle of Fajjar 1st time. At the age of 15 or thereabout.  
7. Participation in the battle of Fajjar second time. Some time later, no date given.  
8. Participation in Hilful Fazul, a reformist movement. At the age of 16.  
9. Second journey to Syria as a trader. At the age of 23 or 24  
10. Marriage with Hazrat Khadija. At the age of 25 years 2 months.  
11. Unseen secrets reveal themselves. Seven years before Prophethood at the age of 33.  
12. Arbitration. At the age of 35. Arbitrated in the dispute about fixing the black stone which was amicably settled.
13. Prophethood. At the age of 40 years 11 days, 9 Rabi I, corresponding to 12 February, 610 AD, Monday  
14. Fajr and Asr Prayers , prescribed 2 Rakats each. 9 Rabi I, on the day of Prophethood.  
15. Beginning of revelation of the Qur'an 18 Ramaza 1st year of Prophethood Friday, at night Sura 'Alaq was revealed
16. Beginning of secrect preaching House of Arquam Makhzoomi was made centre of movement. About 40 people accepted Islam during this period.
17. First public announcement of Prophethood. At the end of 3rd year of Prophethood.  
18. First wave of opposition, Ridicule Propaganda and mild oppression. 3rd to 5th year of Prophethood. During this period, deputations of Quraish went to pressurise Abu Talib and confabulations for opposition.
19. Second wave of intense opposition, Oppression. 5th to 7th year of Prophethood.  
20. Migration to Abyssinia. Rajab, 5th year of Prophethood.  
21. Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Umar embrace Islam.   Hazrat Umar accepted Islam 3 days after Hazrat Hamza.
22. Prophet's internment at Shi'b Abi Talib with the family of Hashim. 1st Muharram, 7th year of Prophethood.  
23. End of internment and boycott. End of 9th year of Prophethood.  
24. Year of sorrow. Death of Hazrat Abu Talib and Hazrat Khadija 10th year of Prophethood.  
25. Visit to Taif Jumada II, 10th year of Prophethood.  
26. Ascension (Miraj) 27ths Rajab, 10th year of Prophethood, Monday  
27. Daily prayers five times a day prescribed. 27th Rajab, 10th year of Prophethood, Monday.  
28. Beginning of Islam in Medina. Zul hijja, 10th year of Prophethood  
29. Deputation of Medina. Six people accept Islam. Zul hijja, 12th year of Prophethood.  
30. First pledge of Aqaba with 12 persons. Zul hijja, 12th year of Prophethood.  
31. Second pledge of Aqaba with 75 persons. Zul hijjar, 13th year of Prophethood.  
32. Migration: 
   (a) From Mecca to the cave of Thaur
Safar 27, 13th year of Prophethood, Prophet's age was 53 years.  
   (b) Departure from Thaur 1st Rabi I, 13th year of Prophethood, Monday, 16th September, 622 A.D.  
   (c) Arrival at Quba. 8th Rabi I, 14th year of Prophethood Monday 23rd September, 622  
   (d) Entry into Medina. 14th year of Prophethood, Friday  
33. Foundation of Masjid-i-Nabavi laid. Rabi I, 1 H.  
34. Addition of obligatory prayers Rabi II, 1 H.  
35. Brotherhood between Migrants and Ansars First quarter, 1 H.  
36. Establishment of Islamic State and constitutional agreement of Medina. Middle of 1 H.  
37. Defence system introduced. Middle of 1 H. Patrol parties start.
38. Marriage with Hazrat Ayesha. Shawwal, 1 H. Married in Mecca before migration but consummation at Medina after migration.
39. Islam of two elite, Abdullah ibn Salam, formerly Jew and Abu Qais Sarha bin Abi Anas, former Christian monk.    
40. Jihad ordered. 12 Safar 2 H., 1 year 2 months and 10 days after migration.  
41. First military action Ghazwa Waddan. Safar 2 H.  
42. Pacts with outside clans Bani Damra, People of Bowat and Banu Madlaj. Safar to Jumada II, 2 H.  
43. Robbery of Kurz bin Jabir Fahri. Rabi  I, 2 H.  
44. Nakhla episode, first frontier clash of Islamic party. End of Rajab, 2 H. One non-Muslim killed and two taken prisoners and brought to Medina. The Prophet resented the action and made amends for it.
45. Salman Farsi accepts Islam. 2 H.  
46. Beginning of Azan 2 H.  
47. Zakat prescribed. 2 H.  
48. Change of Qibla. 15th Shaban, 2 H. Monday  
49. Ramazan fast prescribed. 1st Ramazan, 2 H. Wednesday.  
50. Congregational prayer of Eid-ul Fitr, Fitra ordered. 1st Shawwal, 2 H.  
51. Battle of Badr. First regular battle: Start from Medina. 8 Ramazan, 2 H. Wednesday  
   Battle. 17 Ramazan, 2 H.  
   Victorious entry into Medina. 20 Ramazan,  2 H.  
52. Marriage of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Fatima. After the battle of Badr, 2 H.  
53. Siege of Banu Qainuqa'. Middle of Shawwal to beginning of Ziq'ada, 2 H.  
54. Prophet's marriage with Hazrat Hafsa, daughter of Hazrat Umar. 3 H.  
55. Marriage of Hazrat Usman with Hazrat Umme Kulsum, daughter of the Prophet. 3 H.  
56. First order of prohibition of wine. 3 H.  
57. End of Ka'ab bin Ashraf. 3 H.  
58. Birth of Hazrat Hassan. 15 Ramazan, 3 H.  
59. Battle of Uhud, Start from Medina. 5 Shawwal, 3 H. after Friday prayer.  
     Battle. 6 Shawwal, 3 H. Saturday.  
     Pursuit of Abu Sufian's army up        to Hamra-ul-Asad. 7 Shawwal, 3 H. Sunday.  
60. First order of prohibition of usury. Soon after battle of Uhud.  
61. Injunctions about orphans. Soon after battle of Uhud.  
62. Detailed laws of inheritance issued. Soon after battle of Uhud.  
63. Injunctions about marriage, rights of wives, prohibition of marriage with idolaters. 3 H.  
64. Prophet's marriage with Ummul Masakin Zainab, daughter of Khozaima. End of 3 H.  
65. Episode of Raji'. Murder of 10 members of missionary deputation. Safar, 4 H.  
66. Ghazwa Banu Nodair. Rabi I, 4 H.  
67. Death of Hazrat Zainab, daughter of Khozaima. Rabi I, 4 H.  
68. Order of Hijab 1 Ziq'ada, 4 H. Friday.  
69. Final order of prohibition of wine. 4 H.  
70. Second Ghazwa of Badr. Ziq'ada, 4 H. Abu Sufian did not turn up in keeping with his own challenge.
71. Ghazwa Dumatul Jandal Rabi I, 5 H.  
72. Ghazwa Banu Al-Mustalaq 3 Shaban, 5H.  
73. Injunctions for Tayammum. On the way to Ghazwa Banu Mustalaq.  
74. Prophet's marriage with Hazrat Jowairia. Shaban, 5 H.  
75. Episode of Ifk. Shaban, 5 H.  
76. Enforcement of Penal Laws against fornication, slander etc. 5 H.  
77. Ghazwa Ahzab. Shawwal or Ziq'ada, 5 H.  
78. Arrival of Daus deputation to Medina. 5 H.  
79. Punishment of Banu Quraiza. Zul hijja, 5 H.  
80. Prophet's marriage with Zainab, daughter of Jahsh. 5 H.  
81. Islam of Thamama bin Usal, chief of Najd. 6 H.  
82. Treaty of Hudaibiya. Ziq'ada, 6 H.  
83. Return to Medina from Hudaibiya. Zul hijja, 6 H.  
84. Islam of Khalid bin Walid and Amr ibn-ul Aas. Zul hijja, 6 H.  
85. Beginning of international call-letters to rulers. 1st Muharram, 6 H. Wednesday.  
86. Ghazwa Khyber. Muharram, 7 H.  
87. Prophet's marriage with Hazrat Safia. Murharram, 7 H.  
88. Return of Abyssinian migrants. 7 H.  
89. Establishment of independent Muslim camp at Saiful Bahr. 7 H. By Muslim young men who were oppressed in Mecca but could not be allowed to say at Medina according to Hudaibiya Treaty.
90. Raid by Saif-ul-Bahr on Quraish Caravan. Safar, 7 H.  
91. Postponed Umra performed Ziq'ada, 7 H.  
92. Detailed injunctions about marriage and divorce 7 H.  
93. Marriage of the Prophet with Hazrat Maimuna at Mecca 7 H.  
94. Islam of Jibila Ghassani. 7 H.  
95 Ghazwa Mutah. Jumada I, 8 H.  
96. Violation of Hudaibiya pact by non-Muslims Rajab, 8 H  
97. Ghazwa of the conquest of Mecca, start from Medina. 10 Ramazan, 8 H. Wednesday.  
     Victorious entry into Mecca 20 Ramazan, 8 H.  
     Expedition of Hazrat Khalid to        demolish the temple of Uzza at        Nakhla. Most probably 
25 Ramazan, 8 H.
 
     Expedition of Amr ibn-ul Aas to        demolish the temple of Swa'a.  Ramazan, 8 H  
     Expedition of Sa'ad Ashhali to        demolish temple of Manat. Ramazan, 8 H  
     Stay in Mecca Up to 9 Shawwal  
     Ghazwa Hunain. Shawwal, 8 H  
     Siege of Taif End of Shawwal to beginning of Ziq'ada, 8 H. about 18 or 20 days.  
     Distribution of booty at Ji'rana,        and Umra Ziq'ada, 8 H.  
98. Final order of prohibition of usury 8 H. On the occasion of the victory of Mecca. Annulment of all demands of the amounts of interest.
99. Arrival of Suda deputation at Medina. 8 H.  
100. Death of Hazrat Zainab, daughter of the Prophet. 8 H.  
101. Organization of Zaka. Beginning of Muharram, 9 H.  
102. Ghazwa of Tabuk. Start of the Poor Contingent. Rajab, 9 H.  
103. Order about Jizia. At the time of Tabuk.  
104. Zerar Mosque set on fire. On return from tabuk.  
105. Islam of Ukaidir, chief of Dumatul Jandal. 9 H.  
106. Apology by Ka'ab ibn Zuhair and his acceptance of Islam. 9 H.  
107. Some deputations which came to Medina:    
     Deputation of Azra. Safar, 9 H.  
     Deputation of Baliy. Rabi I, 9 H.  
     Deputation of Khaulan. Shaban, 9 H.  
     Deputation of Thaqif.  9 H.  
108. Haj prescribed. First Haj under Hazrat Abu Bakr. 9 Zul hijja, 9 H.  
109. Proclamation of annulment of pacts of unlimited period. 10 Rabi II, 10 H.  
110. Deputation of Maharib. 10 H.  
      Deputation of Mahamid. 10 H.  
      Deputation of Khaulan. Shaban, 10 H.  
      Deputation of Naisan. Ramazan, 10 H.  
      Deputation of Bani Haris bin         Ka'ab Shawwal, 10 H.  
      Deputation of Salaman. Ramazan, 10 H.  
111. Twenty days' retirement of the Prophet in the last Ramazan. Ramazan, 10 H.  
112. Musailima the liar's correspondence with the Prophet 10 H.  
113. The Last Haj: start from Medina. 26 Ziq'ada, 10 H. Saturday between Zuhr and Asr.  
     Stay at Zulhailifa. Night between Saturday and Sunday.  
     Putting on Ihram Sunday at the time of Zuhr prayers  
     Arrival and stay at Zittowa. Night of Sunday 4 Zul hijja, 10 H.  
     Start from Zittowa to Mecca 5 Zul hijja, after early morning prayer.  
     Entry into sacred Mosque. 5 Zul hijja, 10 H. at noon  
     Stay outside Mecca. up to 8 Zul hijja, 10 H.  
     Start for Mina. 8 Zul hijja, 10 H. Thursday noon  
     Start from Mina to Arafah 9 Zul hijja, 10 H.  Friday after sunrise.  
     Haj Address. 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. Friday afternoon.  
     Stop at Arafah. 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. after Zuhr and Asr prayers.  
     Start from Arafah to Muzdalifa. 9 Zul hijja, 10 H. after sunset, Friday.  
     From Muzdalifa to                       Masha'ar-i-Haram 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. Saturday after morning prayer.  
     From Masha'ar-i-Haram to Mina 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. before sunrise  
     Throwing of pebbles. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. after sunrise till noon.  
      Address at Mina. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. noon.  
      Sacrifice performed. After address.  
      Start from Mina to Mecca. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H.  
      Return from Mina to Mecca. 10 Zul hijja, 10 H. evening.  
      Second address at Mina. 11 Zul hijja,  10 H.  
     Start from Mina to Mahsab or        Abtah. 13 Zul hijja, 10 H. Tuesday.  
     Return from Mecca. Night between 13th and 14th Zul hijja, 10 H.  
114. Deputation of Nakh'a Middle of Muharram, 11 H.  
115. Order for Start of Usama's Army. 26 Safar, 11 H. Last military expedition ordered by the Prophet.
116. Beginning of the Prophet's fatal disease. End of Safar, 11 H.  
117. Period of seriousness of disease. Stay in Hazrat Ayesha's room. 7 days up to the time of passing away.  
118. Last congrgational prayer at the mosque and last address. 5 days before passing away, Thursday, Zuhr prayer.  
119. Passing away. 12 Rabi I, 11 H. Monday, forenoon.  
120. Burial in Hazrat Ayesha's room. Night between 13 and 14 
Rabi I, 11 H. Tuesday.

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