by Abdul Aziz S. Al Shoumar
Lesson 1: The Meaning of "La
Muhammad Al Rasool
Allah" and The Condition of "La Ilaha Ill-Allah."
The Meaning of the Testimony of Faith:
The testimony (La Ilaha Ill-Allah)
comprises of two concepts; Denial and Affirmation.
The testimony of faith denies the attribute of divinity to
anyone and anything other than
Allah `The Exalted'. All others, besides
Allah, such as the angels, the prophets, and the rest of
mankind, let alone the idols, and the political regimes in the
world, are not gods nor do they deserve to be worshipped. Thus
denial in this respect is not a denial of the existence of the
alleged gods, rather than denial of the divinity which is
attributed to them.
The testimony of faith affirms and restricts divinity to
Allah alone. That is, the slave must believe that
Allah is the only true God, and accordingly dedicate no act
of worship to any, other than Allah.
The Meaning of
Muhammad Al -Rasool Allah:
A confession with your heart that you have to say, "O
Allah! I testify that
(saas) is Your Messenger." That means that none has the
right to be followed after Allah, but the Prophet
(saas) as he is the Last of His Messengers. As
(saas)' is not the father of any man amongst you but he is
the Messenger of Allah and the last [end] of the Prophets and
Allah is Ever All-Aware of everything". (Qur'an 33:40)
"And whatsoever the Messenger
Muhammad(saas)gives you, take it and whatsoever he forbids you,
abstain from it". (Qur'an 59:7)
And Allah says:
Muhammad(saas) to mankind] if you [really] love
Allah, then follow me". (Qur'an 3:31)
As for the others, i.e. other than
Muhammad(saas) their statements are to be taken or rejected in
accordance with Allah's Book (i.e. the
Qur'an) or with
Sunnah (legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements
etc,) of the Prophet.
Conditions of "La Ilaha Ill-Allah:"
- Knowledge, which consists of recognizing
Allah as the only true God to Whom worship must be
dedicated, and denouncing all the other gods worshipped
besides Allah as false, and that they can neither extend benefit
nor cause harm.
- Certainty, that the belief in Allah must be unblemished and without any doubt.
- Acceptance: that is to accept all its conditions, meaning
- Submission: that is to fulfill its conditions submissively
and willingly being content with Allah as the Rubb (only Lord) and
Muhammad(saas), as His slave and last Prophet and Messenger.
- Truthfulness: that is to fulfill its requirements
- Sincerity: that is to be sincere in worshipping
Allah, dedicating all acts of worship to Him alone.
- The love of Allah, and the love of His Messenger
Muhammad(saas), and the love of Allah's devotees and the people of His obedience, which
means love of all Muslims.
Finally, it should be borne in mind that
Allah must be obeyed, by following His commands and
refraining from His prohibitions. Obedience to
Allah must be associated with loving Him, fearing His
punishment, and hoping for His reward, seeking His forgiveness
and adhering to the teachings of His Messenger
Muhammad(saas), who is the last of Allah's Messengers and his Shari'ah, i.e. the laws
and religious rites, that abrogate all other preceding laws and
religious rites, as
comprises the best of every preceding Shari'ah or
- To testify that there is no true God but
Allah and that
Muhammad(saas), is His last Messenger and the last of prophets.
- To perform the obligatory Prayers (5 times a day).
- To Pay ZAKAT (Poor-due once a year).
- To Fast during the month of Ramadan.
- To perform Hajj and Umrah (Pilgrimage - Once in lifetime,
if one is capable of).
Lesson 3: The Fundamental Articles of
- In Allah.
- In His Angels.
- In His revealed Books.
- In His Messengers.
- In the Last day or Resurrection.
- In al-Qadr - Pre-ordainments [i.e.
whatever Allah has ordained must come to pass - in other words,
fate and destiny].
Lesson 4: Tawheed (Islamic
Tawheed (Islamic Monotheism) has three aspects:
- Oneness of [the Lordship of Allah] - "Tawheed al Rububiyyah".
To believe that there is only one Lord for all the universe,
Its Creator, Organizer, Planner, Sustainer and Giver of
Security etc., and that is Allah.
- Oneness of the worship of Allah - "Tawheed al Uluhiyyah".
To believe that none has the right to be worshipped (e.g. by
praying, invoking, asking for help (from the unseen),
swearing, slaughtering sacrificing, giving charity, Fasting,
and Pilgrimage etc,) should only be directed to
- Oneness of the Names and the qualities of
Allah, "Tawheed al Asma was-Sifat".
To believe that:
- We must not name or qualify Allah except with what He or His Messenger, has named or
- None deserve to be named or qualified with the Names or
Qualifications of Allah; e.g. Al-Karim (All-Generous).
- We must confirm all of
Allah's Qualifications which
Allah has stated in His Book (the Holy Qur'an) or
mentioned through His Messenger
Muhammad(saas), without changing them or ignoring them
completely or twisting the meanings or giving resemblance to
any of the created things.
Allah is present over His Throne, as mentioned in the
The Most Beneficent
Allah "Istawa" (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne, and
Allah descends to the (nearest) Heaven to us on the Day of 'Arafat'
(i.e. the 9th of Dhul Hijja), and also during
the last third part of the night as mentioned by the Prophet,
but He is with us by His Knowledge, not by His Supreme Entity (Bi
"There is nothing like unto Him and He is All-Hearer, the
All-Seer". (Qur'an 42:11)
This Ayah (verse) confirms the quality of hearing
and the quality of the sight of
Allah without any resemblance to others.
He, also says:
"To one whom I have created with Both My Hands". (Qur'an 38:75)
and He, Says:
"The Hand of
Allah is over their hands". (Qur'an 48:10)
This confirms two Hands for
Allah, but there is no similarity for them. This is the
faith of all the true believers, and was the faith of all the
Allah, from 'May Peace be upon him' Noah, Abraham, Moses and
Jesus till the last of the Prophets
Muhammad(saas). It is not like as some people think that
Allah is present here, there and everywhere. This is not
Allah tells us that He is above Heaven, over His Throne.
These three aspects of Tawheed are included in the
meaning of "La ilaha ill-Allah"
[None has the right to be worshipped but
It is essential to follow
Muhammad(saas), in the right path and it is a part of Tawheed
This is included in the meaning,
"I testify that
Allah's Messenger", and this means, "None
has the right to be followed after
Allah's Book (the Qur'an) but
Allah's Messenger ". (Qur'an 59:7 and 3:31)
Lesson 5: Shirk [Association
of others With
Allah in Worship]
Shirk is divided into two categories:
- Major Shirk.
- Minor Shirk.
1. Major Shirk (Major Polytheism)
It necessitates failure of deeds and remaining for ever in
the hell-fire as per Qur'an.
"But if they had joined in worship others with
Allah, what they used to do would have been of no benefit
to them". (Qur'an 6:88)
"It is not for the Mushrikun [polytheists,
idolaters, pagans, disbelieves in the Oneness of
Allah], to maintain the Mosques of
Allah [i.e. to pray and worship
Allah therein, to look after their cleanliness and their
building etc.], while they witness against their own selves of
disbelief. The works of such are in vain and in fire shall
they abide". (Qur'an 9:17)
Whoever dies in a state of Shirk, will not be
forgiven and will not be allowed into Paradise, pursuant to
Allah forgives not [the sign of] setting up partners in
worship with Him but He forgives, whom He Pleases, sins other
than that". (Qur'an 4:116)
"Verily whosoever sets up partners in worship with
Allah Has forbidden Paradise for him and the fire will be
his abode; and for the zalimun [polytheists and
wrong-doers] there are no helpers". (Qur'an 5:72)
Shirk categorized under this type includes calling those
who are dead, praying to idols for help and for relief, make vow
to them and offering animals for slaughter as a sign of
obedience to them etc.
2. Minor Shirk
It is the type proved by the texts of
Sunnah to be called Shirk, but it is not
categorized under Major Shirk such as hypocrisy in some
deeds, to swear by something other than
Allah and saying "Allah
Willed and so and so willed", and the like. According to some of
the following Hadith of our Prophet:
"What I fear most for you is the Minor Shirk". When
asked what is Minor Shirk, he said "Disguised Shirk" reported
by Mahmoud ibn Labeed al Ansari, ('May
Allah be pleased with him') (Ahmed, Tabrani, and Bayhaqi)
"He who swore by something other than
Allah shall be regarded as Mushrik." reported by Omar ibn
"He who swore by other than
Allah had fallen in Kufr or Shirk" reported by Ibn Omar
Allah be pleased with both of them) (Abu Dawood and
"Do not say
Allah willed, and so and so willed, but say
Allah willed, then so and so willed." reported by
Hudhayfah ibn al Yaman (Abu Dawood)
This type of Shirk does not necessitate apostasy of
lasting in Hell, but it affects the perfection of the obligatory
Disguised Shirk may be Major Shirk or Minor
Shirk. It may fall in the major shirk such as
the shirk of hypocrites, because they conceal their bad
faith and pretend to be Muslims to cover themselves.
Disguised shirk may also fall in the category of
minor shirk such as "Riya", (to do good deeds
or beautify them to be seen by men) as stated in the following
Hadith of Mahmoud ibn Labeed al Ansari. Its proof is the saying
of the Prophet:
"May I tell you of what I fear very much, that might
harm you more than Al Masih al Dajjal?"(Pseudo-Christ) The
audience said, "Yes, O' Prophet of
Allah ". He said, "The disguised shirk, that is, when a
man gets up to pray and strives to beautify his prayer,
because people are looking at him." reported by Abi Sa'eed al
Allah grant us success in escaping from these dangers.
Lesson 6: To Wear a Ring, Twine, or anything Similar for
Protection From or Removal of Harm or Affliction, is an act of
"Say: Tell me then, the things that you invoke
Allah, - if
Allah intended some harm for me, could they remove His
harm, or if He [Allah]
intended some mercy for me, could they withhold His Mercy?
Say: Sufficient for me is
Allah; in Him those who trust [i.e. believers] must put
their trust" . (Qur'an 39:38)
Imran ibn Husain narrated:
The Prophet, once saw a man with a brass ring on his hand
and asked him, "What is this?" The man replied, "To overcome
the weakness of old age." He said, "Remove it, for, it can
only add to your weakness. Should death overtake you while you
are wearing it, you would never succeed." (Ahmad)
He also recorded in a Marfu' Hadith (tradition
traced to the Prophet, himself): Uqbah ibn Aamir narrated that
"Whoever wears a talisman or an amulet would never see
his wish fulfilled by
Allah. And whoever hangs a sea-shell would never get peace
In another version the Prophet, is reported to have said:
"Whoever wears a talisman has committed Shirk."
Ibn Abi Hatim reported about Hudhaifah: He saw a man with a
piece of twine on his hand (as protection or cure from fever) so
he cut the twine and read the Ayah:
"Most of them believe in
Allah and still practice shirk [polytheism]".
Important points of the Lesson
- It is strictly forbidden to wear rings, twines and the
like seeking protection.
- If, even the Companions had died wearing such a thing,
would not have succeeded (in the Hereafter). This is a
confirmation to the statement of the Companions that minor
Shirk is greater (worse) than major sins.
- Ignorance is no excuse.
- Wearing any such article will not benefit this life.
Indeed, it is harmful as was stated by the Prophet, "It will
do nothing except increase your weakness."
- The intense disapproval and censure of whoever does such a
- The declaration that whoever attaches something to himself
will have that thing put in charge of him.
- The declaration that whoever wears an amulet has committed
- Hudhaifah's reciting the Ayah of Qur'an is a
clear proof that Companions used to recite the Ayah
dealing with the major Shirk to condemn minor
Shirk. Ibn Abbas did so, by reciting the Ayah
from Surah al-Baqarah.(Qur'an 2:165)
- Seeking cure from fever or relief from evil eye by using
talisman, amulets etc. is Shirk.
- Curse is upon those who use amulets, that their wishes
should not be granted by
Allah and those who use shells will neither get rest nor
peace. That is,
Allah has left them.
Lesson 7: Ruqa (Incantation), Talismans and Amulets
Narrated Abu Bashir Al-Ansari: He was in the company of
Allah's Messenger, on one of his journeys.
Allah's Messenger, sent a messenger ordering:
"There shall not remain any necklace of bowstring or
any other kind of necklace round the necks of camels except it
is cut off" (Bukhari and Muslim)
Ibn Mas'ud narrated that he heard
Allah's Messenger, saying:
" Al-Ruqa, Al-Tima'im and Al-Tiwalah are all acts of
Shirk (Polytheism)." (Ahmad, Abu Dawood)
Al Ruqa or al Aza'im is the act of reciting incantations,
charm etc. Those are allowed in which there is no trace of
Shirk (Polytheism). Prophet
Muhammad(saas), has permitted it in case of being bitten by
poisonous insects or disturbed under the effect of an evil eye.
Al Tama'im is the act of putting an amulet
around the necks of children to protect them from effects of
evil eyes. If the amulet contains the Ayah of the
Allah's Names and Attributes then it is allowed by some
ancestors and disallowed by some. Ibn Mas'ud was among those who
Al Tiwalah (bewitch) is
something done by those who claim they can cause a woman to
become more fond of her husband or vice-versa.
Abdullah ibn Ukaim narrated the following Marfu'
"Whoever uses, attaches to himself or wears a talisman,
will be left alone with that talisman put in charge of him."
(Ahmad & Tirmidhi)
Ruwaifi' said that
Allah's Messenger, said to him:
"O' Ruwaifi', it may be that you live long after me, so
inform people that whoever ties a knot in his beard, places
any string or cord around his neck (as a charm), or cleans
himself (after toilet) with animal dung or bone,
Muhammad(saas), has nothing to do with him." (Ahmad)
Sa'id ibn Jubair said: "Whoever cut an amulet or talisman
from anyone, it would be equal to liberating a slave."
It was Waki' who recorded it, and he reported from
Ibrahim Nakh'i that they used to dislike every type of amulets
and talismans whether they contained the Ayah of Qur'an
or anything else. [They were the Companions of Abdullah ibn
Important issue of the Lesson
- All the three above-mentioned acts are Shirk
Lesson 8: Whoever seeks blessing through a tree, a stone,
"Have you then considered Al-Laat and
Al-Uzzah". "And Manaat [idols of the pagan
Arabs] the other third?" (Qur'an 53:19,20)
Tirmidhi reported and declared as Sahih (authentic),
that Abu Waqid Al-Laithi said: We went out with
Allah's Messenger, on the campaign to Hunain while we had
just left disbelief (Kufr) for
The Mushrikun had a Sidr (lote-tree) that they
would stay there and hang their arms (weapons) on, called
Dhat Anwat. When we passed a Sidr, we asked, "O'
Allah, won't you make for us another Dhat Anwat
just like their Dhat Anwat?"
Allah's Messenger, said, "Allahu Akbar [Allah
is the All-Great]! By the one
Allah Who holds my soul in His hand, verily these are the
ways of earlier nations; You have said exactly as the Children
of Israel said to Musa [Moses] make for us a god just as their
gods. He recited:
"Verily you are a people who know not". (Qur'an 7:138)
and added: "Certainly you will follow the ways of those who
went before you."
Important Points of the Lesson
- The request by the Companions, May
Allah be pleased with them, regarding a tree similar to
- Their intention was to become closer to
Allah by their act, as they thought He would like it.
- The Prophet, rejected their request by saying: "Allahu
Akbar, these are the ways of earlier nations, thereby
expressing the gravity of the matter.
- If some Companions [May
Allah be pleased with them all] were unaware of the nature
of their intended acts, it is reasonable to assume that later
generations (of much lesser status) are more likely to fall
- The negation of this act is in the very meaning of "There
is no true God except
Allah ", which is subtle and hidden, and this was not
perceived by them.
- Shirk is of two types, i.e. major and minor because
the Companions were not turned apostate due to their request
- It is essential to put an end to all possible ways leading
to Shirk (polytheism) and to prohibit any resemblance
of people of ignorance (disbelievers).
- The general tendency of mankind has been expressed by the
Prophet, by saying: "These are the ways."
- At every place where
Allah has censured the Jews and the Christians in the
Qur'an He has also warned us against those deeds.
- The one who has moved from falsehood (i.e. became Muslim)
and get accustomed to certain beliefs or habits is not totally
safe from having remnants of these habits, as is evidenced in
the Companions' words "and we had just left disbelief (Kufr)."
Lesson 9: Slaughtering for other than
"Say: Verily my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my
dying are for
Allah, the Lord of the worlds"." He has no partner. And of
this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims"
. (Qur'an 6: 162,163)
"Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice [to
Him only]". (Qur'an 108:2)
Ali ibn Abi Talib, said: "Allah's
Messenger, informed me about four Judgments [of
Allah's curse is upon the one who slaughters (his
sacrifice) for anything other than
Allah's curse is upon the one who curses his own parents
(by cursing the parents of others)
Allah's curse is upon the one who shelters an heretic
(who has brought a Bid'ah in religion)
Allah's curse is upon the one who alters the landmarks
(who changes boundary lines)
Ahmed reports that Tariq ibn Shihab narrated that
Allah's Messenger, said:
"A man entered Paradise because of a fly, and a man entered
Hell-fire because of a fly. The Companions asked, "How was
that possible O' Messenger of
Allah?" He said, "Two men passed by some people who had an
idol by which they would not allow anyone to pass without
making a sacrifice to it. They ordered one man to make a
sacrifice. He said, 'I have nothing to present as an
offering.' The people told him, 'Sacrifice something, even if
it be a fly.' So he presented a fly (to their idol). They
opened the way for him, and thus he entered the Hell-fire.
They said to the other, Sacrifice something.' He said, I will
never sacrifice anything to anyone other than
Allah, All-Majestic and All-Glorious. So they struck his
throat and killed him, and he therefore, entered Paradise."
Important points of the Lesson
- The curse is on those who sacrifice to anything other than
- Curse is upon those who curse their parents (by cursing
others' parents and in turn, the latter curse their parents).
- Curse is upon the person who shelters a heretic person (Muhdith)
in religion. That is, a person innovates something that is
necessarily the sole right of
Allah to do and then seeks shelter with someone who
assists him in it.
- Curse is upon him who unjustly alters the landmark, i.e.
the boundaries that differentiate one person's land from his
neighbour's, and changes them to encroach upon that land or
- The simple but tremendous story of the fly is very useful.
- The person who presented a fly to the idol went to Hell
though, Indeed, he did it to save himself from the threat of
idolaters [but he let down his religion].
- Knowing how hated Shirk is to the hearts of the
believers in the case of the man who was patient in facing
execution and did not give-in to their demand in spite of the
fact that they demanded only a fly from him.
- This is a confirmation of the Hadith "Paradise is
closer than the laces of your shoes and the Hell-fire is
- The action of the heart is aimed at, even among the idol
Lesson 10: To vow to other than
Allah is an act of Shirk
"They [are those who] fulfill [their] vows, and they fear a
Day whose evil will be Wide-spreading". (Qur'an 76:7)
"And whatever you spend for Charity [for
Allah's cause] or whatever vow you make, be sure
Allah knows it all". (Qur'an 2:270)
Narrated 'Aishah (May
Allah be pleased with her) that
Allah's Messenger, said:
"Whoever vows that he will be obedient to
Allah, should be obedient to Him, and whoever made a vow
that he will disobey
Allah, should not disobey Him" (Bukhari)
Important points of the lesson
- Fulfillment of the vow is obligatory. Since making a vow
is an act of worship to
Allah, then directing a vow to other than
Allah is committing a Shirk. Any vow, if based on
Allah] it is not permissible to carry out.
Lesson 11: To Seek refuge in others than
Allah is Shirk
And verily, there were men among mankind who took shelter
with the male Jinns, but they [Jinn's] increased them
[mankind] in sin and disbelief". (Qur'an 72:6)
Muslim reports that Khawlah bint Hakim (May
Allah be pleased with her) said, I heard
Allah's Messenger , say:
"Whoever goes into a dwelling and says (while entering it):
'I seek refuge in
Allah's perfect words from the evil (of the creatures)
which He has created', no harm shall befall him until he
departs from that place." (Muslim)
Important points of the Lesson
- Seeking refuge in other than
Allah is a form of Shirk (Polytheism).
- It may be that one achieves some worldly benefit from a
thing, such as prevention from a harm or evil, or gaining some
advantage or good, it does not mean that dependence on such)
is not Shirk.
- The scholars use this Hadith to prove that the Words of
Allah are not creatures; But to seek refuge in created
things is Shirk.
- The superiority of this invocation despite its being
Lesson 12: To Seek help in other than
Allah (Istighatha) or to Invoke other than him is
an act of Shirk
"And invoke not beside
Allah any that will neither profit you nor hurt you, but
if [in case] you did so, you shall certainly be one of the
Zalimun [polytheists and wrong doers]"." And if
Allah touches you with hurt, there is none who can remove
it but He; and if He intends any good for you, there is none
who can repel His Favours which he causes it to reach
whomsoever of His slaves He will. And He is the Oft-forgiving,
Most Merciful". (Qur'an 10:106,107)
"You worship besides
Allah only idols, and you only invent falsehood. Verily,
those whom you worship besides
Allah have no power to give you provision, so seek your
Allah [alone] and worship Him [alone] and be grateful to
Him. To Him [Alone] you will be brought back". (Qur'an 29:17)
"And who is more astray than who calls [invokes] besides
Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of
Resurrection; and who are [even] unaware of their calls
[invocations] to them"?" And when mankind are gathered [on the
Day of Resurrection], they [false deities] will become enemies
for them and will deny their worshipping". (Qur'an 46:5,6)
"Is not He who responds to the distressed one, when he
calls Him; and who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors
of the earth, generations after generations? Is there any god
Allah? Little is that you remember!" (Qur'an 27:62)
Tabarani narrates: During the days of the Prophet, there was
a hypocrite who used to harm the believers. Some of the
"Come: we appeal to
Allah's Messenger, for assistance against this hypocrite."
The Prophet replied,
"Verily, no one should seek relief from me. Indeed, it is
Allah Who is to be sought for relief."
Important points of the Lesson
- It is greater Shirk to call upon anything, other
Allah. Even the most pious person calls others for help
(supernaturally) rather than
Allah becomes one of the Zalimun (wrong-doers,
- Calling others for help besides
Allah is of no benefit in this world and it leads to
- Requests for sustenance and provision should not be made
to any one other than
Allah, Just as Paradise can be requested from none but
- There is none more misguided than the one who calls on
- To whom the call is made (beside or/and besides
Allah is unaware of the supplication of the caller; he
knows nothing about it.
- The call will be the cause for anger and enmity of the one
called towards the caller.
- The call is regarded as worship of the one called upon.
- The one called upon will deny and reject this act of
worshipping towards him (on the Day of Judgment).
- This is why such a supplicant is the most astray of the
- Astonishing admission of the idolaters that none relieves
any one in distress other than
Allah. That is why, they used to call upon Him in times of
extreme difficulty with the utmost religious sincerity.
Lesson 13: The Condemnation of the one who worships
Allah at the Grave of a righteous man. This amounts To
Worship of man
Allah be pleased with her, reported: "Umm Salamah mentioned
Allah's Messenger, that in Abyssinia she saw a church full
of pictures and statues. He said:
"When a righteous man or pious worshipper among them dies
they build a place of worship over his grave and set up all
kinds of pictures and statues. They are the worst of all
Allah. They combine two evils; a) worshipping at the
graves and b) making images and statues." (Bukhari and Muslim)
Again, 'Aishah, May
Allah be pleased with her, narrated:
"When the death approached
Allah's Messenger, he began to draw a piece of cloth (bed
sheet) over his face, sometimes covering and sometimes
removing because of distress. He, said in that state: "Allah's
curse be upon the Jews and the Christians for taking the
graves of their Prophets as places of worship", and he warned
the people about their actions. Had there not been any fear of
making the Prophet's grave a place of worship, his, grave
would have been as open as the graves of his Companions." (Bukhari
Jundub bin AbdAllah, narrated:
I heard the Prophet, say only five days before his death: "I
deny having any of you as my Khalil (most loved friend).
Allah has taken me as His Khalil just as He had taken
Ibrahim [Abraham] as Khalil, otherwise I would have taken Abu
Bakr, as Khalil. Beware of those who preceded you. They used
to make their Prophets' graves places of worship, I forbid you
to do so." (Muslim)
He, forbade this at the end of his life. After this
[forbidding of taking graves as Masjid (mosque - place of
worship)], he cursed anyone who did any such deed within this
context. Prayer at the graves is one of these deeds, even if no
Masjid has been built. This is the meaning of his, words "He
feared (his grave) would be taken as a Masjid ". The Companions
never built any place of worship around his grave. Any place
which is intended for prayer or where prayer is performed has
indeed been taken as a Masjid. Just as the Prophet, said: "The
whole earth has been made for me a Masjid and it is pure and
clean (and a purifier)."
Ahmad has reported with a good chain of narrators that Ibn
"The Most evil men are those upon whom the (signs of) the
Hour (of Resurrection) comes, while they are still alive, and
those who take graves as places of worship (Masjid)." (This is
also reported by Abu Hatim)
Important Points of the Lesson
- The warning of
Allah's Messenger, against building a mosque to worship
Allah by the graves of righteous persons even with good
- Prohibition of statues and the like and the gravity of the
- Prophet, strongly prohibited the turning of his grave into
- It was the practice of the Jews and the Christians to turn
the graves of their Prophets into places of worship.
- His curse on the Jews and the Christians for this
- His intention in saying so was a warning to us regarding
- The reason for not raising his grave.
- The meaning of taking the graves as Masjid.
- The Prophet, linked those who took the graves as Masjid to
those upon whom the Hour will occur while they are still
alive. He mentioned the means to Shirk before its
actual occurrence along with its final consequence.
- The mentioning of Prophet, in his speech a refutation of
the two worst sects of bid`ah (innovators) just five
days prior to his death. Some scholars have not included these
two sects in the 72 Muslim sects. These sects are Rafidah
and Jahmiyah. The occurrence of Shirk and
grave worshipping was due to Rafidah sect, and they
were the first to build Masjid over the graves.
- Suffering of the Prophet, from pains and affliction of
Allah awarded the favour of making him a Khalil
(most loved friend) which is a clear declaration being a
khalil is something more valuable than love.
- A clear declaration that Al-Siddiq [Abu-Bakr], was the
- The Indication to him [Abu-Bakr] as caliph [successor to
the Prophet ]
Lesson 14: Exaggerations in The Graves of righteous persons
tend to make them like idols, Worshipped besides
Imam Malik, May
Allah be merciful to him, recorded in his book Muwatta
that the Prophet, said: "O
Allah! Never turn my grave into an idol to be worshipped.
Allah's wrath intensified on a people who turned their
Prophet's grave into Masjid." Concerning the Ayah:
"Have you then considered al-Laat
and al-Uzza [idlos]". (Qur'an 53:19)
Ibn Jarir (Tabari) reported from Sufyan, from Mansur, from
"He (Laat) used to serve the pilgrims by preparing Saweeq
(fine flour of barley or wheat mixed with water and - butter
oil) for them. After his death, people began to stay confined
at his grave for the purpose of reward."
The same was reported by Abul-Jawza, May
Allah be merciful to him, from ibn Abbas. Ibn Abbas,
Messenger, cursed the women who visit the graves. He, also
cursed those who set up mosques and put lights over graves."
(This Hadith is confirmed by Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah
Important points of the Lesson.
- Explanation of Idols.
- Explanation of worship.
- The Prophet, did not seek refuge in
Allah except from that which he feared would occur.
- The Prophet's joining the supplication i.e. "O
Allah! Never turn my grave." with the statement on people
making the graves of Prophets as Masjid (mosque).
- Mention of the intense wrath of
Allah on those who indulge in such activities.
- of most importance is the description how the worship of
Laat, one of the major (pre-Islamic) idols, started.
- Laat was the name of a righteous person buried in
that grave, and the mention of the meaning behind (idol) being
named as such.
- Curse of the Prophet, on the women who visit the graves
and upon those who put lights on the graves
Lesson 15: Al-Mustafa blocked every path leading to
Shirk to Protect Tawheed
"Verily, there has come unto you a messenger [Muhammad(saas)] from among yourselves. It grieves him that you
should receive any injury or difficulty. He [Muhammad(saas)] is anxious over you [to be rightly guided, to
Allah, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins, in
order that you may enter Paradise and be saved from the
punishment of the Hell-fire], for the believers He is full of
pity, kind, and merciful". "But if they turn away, say [O
Allah is sufficient for me. La ilaha illa Huwa
[none has the right to be worshipped but He], in Him I put my
trust and He is the Lord of the Mighty Throne". (Qur'an 9:128,129)
Abu Huraira, narrated that
Allah's Messenger, said:
"Do not make your homes graves (i.e. Pray in them). Do
not make my grave a place of celebration. Send your Salat
(blessings, graces, honours and mercy) on me. Your Salat will
be conveyed to me, from wherever you may be." (Abu Dawud
recorded this Hadith with reliable chain of narrators")
And Ali bin Hussain narrated: He saw a man at a place that
was at the grave of the Prophet, he would go in it and
supplicate. So he (Ali bin Husain) prevented the man and
instructed him saying, "Should I not tell you a Hadith which I
heard from my father who in turn heard it from my grandfather
[Ali] who reported from
Allah's Messenger. He, said:
"Do not take my grave as place of celebration, nor your
homes as graves, make Salat upon me, for, it will be conveyed
to me from wherever you are." (Al-Mukhtarah the collection of
Important points of the Lesson
- The Prophet, did his best to keep his Ummah outside the
boundaries of Shirk, as far away as possible.
- The Prophet's concern for our well-being and success and
his compassion and mercy.
- The Prophet, forbade visiting his grave in a certain and
specific manner, though visiting the grave is among the best
- The Prophet, forbade us from making excessive visits to
- He urged people to perform voluntary (nafil)
prayer at home.
- It is established among Companions, that performing
Salat in the cemetery is prohibited.
- The explanation that a person's invocation of Salat
and salam upon the Prophet, is conveyed to him even
if he be far away. As such, there is no necessity to be in
close proximity (to his grave) as some people misconstrue.
- The Prophet, is in Al-Barzakh (the state of
after-death and pre-resurrection) where the Salat and
Salam of his Ummah are conveyed (to him).
Lesson 16: Types of Water & Impurities
Water can be divided into 2 categories:
- PURE (Tahur) Water which is permissible for
- IMPURE (Tahur [SEE NOTICE
OF CORRECTIONS BELOW)) water which is not permissible
- Mutlaq Water i.e., Natural water such as Rain
water, Sea water and altered water because of its being in a
place for a long time, like a pond or lake and is mixed with
algae, tree leaves etc., which cannot be removed from it.
- Water even though has been mixed with clean elements such
as, flour or salt etc. to some extent, can still be called
- A large quantity of water, which is equal to or more than
Water, even if mixed with impure substances, but does not
change taste, color or odour, is considered Tahur
1 Qulla is equivalent to about 95.62 liters.
- If any impurities is mixed with a small quantity of water,
- which is less than 2 Qullas, the water is considered
Tahur, regardless of whether there is change in taste,
colour or odour of water.
- If any of the impurities is mixed with a large quantity of
water - 2 Qullas or more, but the taste, colour or odour of
water is changed. It can not be good for wudu, but
may be used for drinking.
- Excrement of People
- His urine.
- Shed blood. - Blood shed under any circumstances.
- Dog's saliva.
- The urine & stool of animals that are not permissible to
- Dead animals except the following:
- Dead animals of the Sea and Locusts.
- Dead animals that have no running blood e.g. fly.
- Hair furs, feathers, bones, horns and claws of dead
animals, if they are permissible to eat when alive.
Lesson 17: How to Perform Wudu & Wiping over the
The essential and voluntary acts are integrated here to
demonstrate how the Prophet, used to perform wudu.
- Making the intention (Niyyah) to perform wudu as
an act of sincere worship for the pleasure of
Allah. The intention is not to be uttered but it should be
kept in mind during the wudu.
Allah, at the start of the wudu by saying "Bismillah"
[In the Name of
- Washing the hands up to the wrists three times, while
rubbing them and allowing the water to reach between the
- Rinsing the mouth with water thrice, preferably after
using "miswak" - (tooth stick), tooth brush or
fingers to brush the teeth and the gum. Regarding the
importance of miswak, the Prophet, is reported to
have said, "If it had not been a great burden on my Ummah,
I would have ordered them to use miswak at every wudu." (Imam
- Cleaning the nostrils by sniffing water in and out three
- Washing the entire face thrice using both hands from the
top of the forehead down to the bottom of the chin and from
ear to ear.
- Washing the arms three times up to the upper end of
elbows; right arm first and then the left arm. Arms should be
rubbed while being washed.
- Wetting both hands and passing them over the head starting
from above the forehead down to the back of the head and from
there bringing the hands forward up to the forehead. Do not
wet the neck.
- From the head, without wetting the hands again wipe the
earlobes, using the forefingers to wipe the inner part of the
lobes and the thumbs for the outside part.
- Washing both feet up to the ankles three times, beginning
with the right foot and then the left foot. Both feet should
be rubbed while they are being washed and water should freely
pass between the toes.
Wiping over the Socks
- If someone's "wudu" gets nullified, then, while
performing a fresh wudu, it is allowed to wipe over
the socks with wet hands, instead of washing both feet, on
condition that the socks were put on after washing the feet in
the first wudu and before the same was nullified.
- A traveller may avail himself of this privilege
continuously for five consecutive prayers, three consecutive
days and nights (72 hours), but a resident may do so for only
one day and one night continuously (24 hours).
How to Wipe over the Socks:
Wiping is done according to the traditions of the Prophet, as
- After removing the shoes, wet hands are passed only over
the upper surface of the socks (without wiping the bottom part
When the Wiping Privilege Ceases:
The wiping privilege becomes invalid in the following cases.
- When the maximum timing allowed, as discussed above, has
- The moment the socks are removed.
- When any of the cases requiring "ghusl" occur.
- Intention (niyyah). The intention need not be
uttered, but is kept in mind during the wudu.
- Purifying oneself from urine, excrement by istinja,
using water, or by istijmar ' using stones or tissue
and also purifying from all kinds of impurities.
- Using clean and lawful (halal) water.
- Ensuring that the water reaches the skin.
In cases of those who are afflicted with physical condition
of permanent wetting of urine, frequent passing of wind or for
women suffering from prolonged flows of blood, they should make
wudu when prayer time is due. Their wudu is
not nullified, even if any of the above things occur, while they
are in prayer.
Lesson 19: Essential Acts of Wudu
- Washing the entire face once (including rinsing of the
mouth and cleaning of nostrils).
- Washing each arm once.
- Wiping the whole head once.
- Washing both feet up to the ankles.
- Ensuring that the above (4) acts are performed in the
- Performing the wudu acts continuously and without
unnecessary let-ups until completion.
Lesson 20: Matters that invalidate the Wudu
The person will remain in a state of wudu until any
of the following occurs:
- Passing of excrement, urine or wind. When someone passes
urine and/or excrement, it becomes mandatory upon such person
to remove the foulness of these things before performing
wudu. Clean water should be used for this purpose. The
person may also resort to the use of certain dry objects, such
as stones, dry wood or tissue to remove the filth. This is
known as "istijmar". While using these dry objects,
it is preferable to use them in odd numbers, such as 3 or 5
etc. The person should ensure that no drops of urine, stains,
foulness remain on his/her body or clothes.
- However, in case of persons afflicted with permanent
wetting, or frequent passing of wind and women suffering from
prolonged flows of blood, wudu is required to be
performed only once, immediately before the start of prayer.
Their wudu would remain valid, even if the above
problems occur, while that person is in the middle of prayer.
- Eating of camel's meat.
- Sleeping, during which a person loses consciousness.
- Loss of consciousness from insanity, fainting etc.,
- Touching of sexual organs intentionally, directly and
unclothed (skin to skin).
Lesson 21: The Earth to be used for Tayammum
Tayammum is dry cleaning in lieu of wudu when water
is not available or sickness etc. prevents use of water for
prayers, reciting Qur'an etc. Earth, sand or stone is used in
lieu of water.
The earth, sand or stone should be clean in Islamic the
How to Perform Tayammum
- The person should, first of all, have intention (by heart)
to perform Tayammum.
- Strike the earth with the palms of both hands.
- Wipe the face using both palms once.
- Thereafter, the person uses the left palm to wipe the back
of the right hand up to the wrist, and then uses the right
palm to wipe over the back of left hand up to the wrist.
Lesson 22: Occasions when Ghusl (obligatory bath)
- After the discharge of semen, as a result of stimulation,
whether one is asleep or awake, (i.e. in wet dream). This
state is known as "junub" in Arabic. If no wetness is
traced in one's clothing, bathing is not obligatory. But, in
case wetness is found without recalling any dream, ghusl
- After sexual intercourse (or the mere coming together of
the organs of the man and woman, even though there may be no
actual ejaculation), Ghusl is obligatory.
- A woman has to perform Ghusl, after the
- A woman has to perform ghusl, at the end of
- When a disbeliever embraces
he has to perform ghusl after uttering the testimony
- When a Muslim dies, Ghusl is required for
Lesson 23: How Ghusl is performed
Both the essential and voluntary acts are now integrated
hereunder to demonstrate how the Prophet, used to perform
- Intention, by heart, to perform ghusl - and say
- Washing both hands up to the wrists three times.
- Washing the sex organs.
- Performing wudu as usual in the manner already
discussed, except that the washing of feet would be delayed
until later, when the rest of the body is washed.
- Pouring water over the head three times, massaging the
hair to allow the water to reach its roots.
- Pouring water liberally over the entire body, starting
with the right side and then the left, ensuring that no part
of the body is left untouched by water, including armpits,
inside the earlobes, inside the navel, between fingers and
- A woman will perform ghusl just as the man does,
except that if she has plaited hair, she need not undo it. She
only needs to throw three handfuls of water over her head.
- After completing the ghusl a person may recite
the supplication for concluding the ghusl, which
should be recited outside the bathroom/toilet, the same
supplication recited after completing wudu.
- When water is nearby, but the person could not fetch it,
due to fear for his/her life, family and wealth (e.g. danger
from beasts or humans in the vicinity) then, tayammum
can be performed.
- When there is not enough water and one is forced to save
what is available for drinking and/or cooking, then
tayammum is allowed.
Lesson 24: Pillars of Salat (Arkan Al-Salat)
The prayer has obligatory pillars, which must be fulfilled
for its validity. They are:
- "Al Qiyam" - prayer is to be performed
in a standing position if a person is physically capable.
- "Takbeer al Ihram", that is
saying "Allahu Akbar", at the commencement
of the prayer.
- " Al Fatihah" - that is reciting the
opening chapter of the Holy Qur'an in every rak'at
- "Ruku'" - this is the bowing posture wherein the
head and back are positioned at the same level and both hands
are rested on the knees with the fingers spread apart.
- Raising up from ruku' position.
- It is required to stand up from the ruku'
position in such a way that the person feels that all his/her
backbones are straightened.
- "Sujud" - that is prostrating oneself in such a
way that the following seven parts of the body are firmly
placed on the ground. i.e. forehead together with the tip of
the nose, both palms, both knees, the bottom surface of toes
of both feet.
- Raising the head from the sujud position.
- It is required to sit upright during the pause between the
- Taking a sitting position for the recitation of "tashah-hud"
' words of witness.
- Reciting of "Tashah-hud" - words of
- Reciting the words of supplication - sal't and
sal'm ' for the Prophet.
- "Tasleem" - that is Concluding the prayer with
the words "Al salamu 'Alaiykum
wa Rahmat Allahi wa Barakatuhu."
- While fulfilling the above pillars of salat, the
person should be in a state of tranquillity.
The above are the pillars of the prayer, wherein if any of
them is missed, the whole rak'ah (Unit) be repeated in
which the pillar was omitted.
But if the takbeer al Ihram - (the first
takbeer that initiates the prayer), is omitted, then
the whole salat be repeated.
Lesson 25: Conditions of Salat
- Acceptance of Islamic Faith - disbelievers are not
required to perform salat until they believe in
Allah and bear witness that there is no god but
Allah and bear witness that
(saas), is His Messenger.
- Al Niyyah - This Arabic word means intention
by heart to perform a particular deed.
- Cleanliness - This includes cleanliness of the body, the
cloths and the place where the prayer is to be performed.
- Purification - this refers to the performance of wudu
(or ghusl where it is required) prior to performing
- Clothes and concealing of the private parts - for man, it
is essential to cover at least from navel to the knees all
around, while in the case of a woman, her body should be
totally covered except the face and palms. But if there are
men around, she should cover her body totally.
- Facing the "qiblah" - A person when praying, must
face towards the direction of the ka'bah, the Sacred
Mosque in Makkah. If a person is in a strange place, and is
not in a position to find out the right direction of
qiblah, he/she can make the best guess of the qiblah
and perform the prayer.
- Timing - prayers are to be observed at the prescribed
Lesson 26: Necessary Duties of Salat (Wajibat
Al Salat) and How to recite "Tashah-Hud"
In addition to the above 14 pillars of prayer, there are also
certain necessary duties, which need to be fulfilled in the
course of the salat. They are as follows:
- All takbeers except takbeer al Ihram.
- Saying "subhana rabbi al azim",
(once) in ruku' position.
- Saying "sami'
Allah liman hamidah" (once) while resuming standing
position from the ruku', whether the person is Imam -
leading the prayer, or is praying alone.
- Saying "rabbana wa laka al hamd" (once) after
resuming the standing position from the ruku'. This
is required from the Imam, from the congregation and also when
person praying alone.
- Saying "subhana rabbi al 'ala" (once) when in
sujud (Prostration) position.
- Saying "rabbi aghfir li" in the sitting pause
between the two prostrations of every unit of the prayer.
- Taking a sitting position on the recitation of the first
tashah-hud at the end of first two rakat
(units) of Zuhr (noon), Asr (afternoon),
Maghrib (evening) and Isha (night) prayers.
- Reciting the tashah-hud (words of witness) after
the end of first two rak'at of Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib
and Isha prayers.
The above 8 acts constitute the necessary duties (parts) of
the prayer and if one of the necessary duties is missed
unintentionally, then the person is required to correct the
mistake by performing two prostrations of forgetfulness at the
end of the prayer. However, if any of these duties is left out
deliberately, then the whole prayer is nullified and shall
require a repetition.
How to recite "Tashah-Hud"
"At-tahiyatu lillahi wassalawatu wat tayyibatu, Assalamu
alaiyka aiyyuhan-nabiyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu.
Assalamu 'alaiyna wa 'ala ibadil-lahis-saliheen. Ash-hadu
anla-ilaha ill-Allahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammad an abdohu wa
ras'luhu. Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala aali Muhammad,
kama sallayta 'ala Ibrahima wa 'ala aali Ibrahima. Innaka
Hameedum Majid. Wa barik 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala aali Muhammad
kama barakta 'ala Ibrahima wa 'ala aali Ibrahima. Innaka
"Greetings, prayers and the good things of life belong to
Allah. Peace, mercy and blessings of
Allah be on you, O Prophet.
May peace be upon us and on the devout slaves of
Allah. I testify that there is no god but
Allah and I testify that
(saas) is His slave and Messenger.
(saas) and his family as You blessed Ibrahim and his
family. You are the All-Praised, the All- Glorious."
Lesson 27: Preferred acts of Salat (Sunnat Al
- Saying the opening supplication (dua al
Istiftah) -"Sub-hanaka Allahumma wa bi hamdika wa
tabaraka -smaka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la-Ilaha ghairuka"
The meaning is: Praise and Glory be to You O
Allah, Blessed be your name, Exalted be your Majesty and
Glory. There is no god but you.
- Putting one's right hand over his left hand and putting
them both over his chest while standing.
- Raising one's hands up to the level of shoulders or near
the lobes of his ears in the following cases:
- Pronouncing :takbeer al Ihram"
- Bowing in ruku'.
- Raising from the position of ruku'.
- Standing up after reciting the first tashah-hud.
- Saying more than one time "Subhana Rabbi al Azeem"
in the ruku'.
- Saying "Ameen" upon concluding the recitation of
- Saying "A'oodhu billahi min al Shaytan al rajeem.
Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem."
- Saying more than one time "rabbi aghfir li",
while taking a pause between the two prostrations. (sujud)
- Keeping one's head and back on one level while bowing for
- Should neither bring his hands close to his sides, nor
stick his abdomen to his thighs nor his thighs to his legs, in
the prostration position.
- Elbows should be raised from the ground, while in
(saas), said "and stretch not your hands on the ground
- Laying one's left foot flat on the ground and sitting upon
it keeping his right foot erect while,
a. Reciting first tashah-hud;
b. Pausing between two prostrations;
c. in the last tashah-hud if the prayer
consists of two rak'at (units) e.g.
fajr (dawn) prayer.
AL TAWARRUK - It is a pose of sitting,
wherein the person protrudes out his left foot from underneath
his right leg, in such a way that the person rests the left
buttock on the floor. It is preferred to practise this, when
sitting for the final tashah-hud in the
Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha
Lesson 28: Things that invalidate Prayer
- Talking intentionally and deliberately (knowing that
prayer will be invalidated if talked.)
- Uncovering one's 'awrah. ('awrah as in
- To shift position from the direction of Ka'bah.
- To do any noticeable act or more outside the acts and
movements of prayer.
- To do anything that invalidates the ablution.
- To fail in observing any of the pillars of prayer, such as
standing when capable, reciting al Fatihah
Lesson 29: The Forgetfulness Prostration (Sujud
As human beings, we are by nature subject to forget fullness,
mistakes and errors, and as mentioned earlier, if a person fails
to perform any of the pillars of the prayer and/or necessary
duties, that person is required to rectify the error by making
two additional prostrations at the end of the prayer known as "sujud
al sahw". i.e. forgetfulness prostrations. But where a
pillar(s) is/are omitted, a repetition of the missed pillar(s)
The four major cases of errors due to forgetfulness are as
- If an addition is made to the prayer e.g. praying Zuhr
with 5(five) rakat (units) instead of 4(four), then
the two additional prostrations for forgetfulness should be
performed after saying the Assalamu 'Alaiykum
(words of peace).
- If a prayer is performed with lesser number of rak'ah
than required. e.g. to pray 3(three) rakat for
Zuhr instead of 4(four). Then, the two additional
prostrations for forgetfulness should be performed before
saying the Assalamu 'Alaiykum.
- If both an addition and omission is made in the course of
the prayer, the forgetfulness prostrations can be performed
before saying the Assalamu 'Alaiykum.
- If a person is in doubt whether omission or addition is
made to his prayer, he should consider it less as a precaution
and perform sujud al sahw - the additional
prostrations for forgetfulness before saying Assalamu
Various instance where "Sujud Al Sahw" becomes
A. Where a Pillar of Prayer is omitted.
- When, for example, a person forgets to recite the "al-Fatihah"
but remembers the same before ruku', or in the
process of going to ruku', he is required to resume a
proper standing position and read the al-Fatihah
and some other ayat from the Holy Qur'an as usual. If
this omission occurred in the first rak'ah and the
person remembers the omission while in the course of the
second rak'ah, he should count the second rak'ah
as being the first rak'ah. Accordingly, he will not
count the first rak'ah, in which the error occurred,
and proceed to perform one extra rak'ah to complete
his sal't. At the end of salat, he will say
"Assalamu 'Alaiykum", after which he should perform
two additional sujud al sahw - the
prostration for forgetfulness, and again say his Assalamu
- If a person sitting in the final "tashah-hud",
remembers that he missed a prostration (in the same raka'h),
then he should immediately perform the missed prostration and
sit back again to repeat the recitation of "tashah-hud".
This person would then say "Assalamu 'Alaiykum",
to conclude the prayer, but thereafter he should perform the
additional sujud al sahw - the prostration for
forgetfulness, and then say the Assal'mu 'Alaiykum
The above are two examples where errors occur in performing a
Pillar of salat (arkan al salat) while
performing a salat. In these situations, the person is
not only required to repeat the missed act, but he is also
required to perform the two additional prostrations - sujud
B.Where a necessary duty is omitted.
However, when someone misses a "wajib" (duty) of the
prayer, the additional two prostrations (sujud al sahw)
will suffice. There is no need to repeat the missed act or the
whole rak'ah. Thus, if a wajib act is missed
and person remembers the error, while he is in another station
of the prayer, then he is not required to repeat the missed act,
but would proceed to complete the rest of the prayer. At the
end, before saying "Assalamu 'Alaiykum", he performs
the additional two prostrations for forgetfulness.
C. When a Preferred Act is omitted.
As for Sunans (Preferred Acts) of the prayer which may be
missed, there is no requirement to repeat those preferred acts,
or to perform the sujud al sahw.
This is a very important pillar of
and possesses plenty of advantages of which some are mentioned
- It meets the needs of the poor in the society.
- It strengthens the good relation between the rich and the
poor, as everyone is naturally inclined towards the one who
does good to him.
- It purifies one's self and sanctifies it, and it purges
one's morals and miserliness which is natural in human beings.
- It promotes generosity and sympathy in a Muslim towards
the needy persons.
- It draws
Allah's Blessing and causes increase in wealth.
Zakat is obligatory on following four types of property:
- The produce of earth, like grains and fruits.
- The grazing animals.
- Gold and Silver.
- Commercial Commodities.
For all types of properties, the Nisab is fixed which is
the minimum amount or quantity liable to the payment of
Zakat, below which no Zakat is payable.
The Produce of Earth:
The Minimum quantity of Nisab, for produce i.e.
grains, fruits, wheat, rice, dates, grapes, barley, etc. is 5
(five) wasq, or approx. 675 kgs (Six hundred and
If in cultivation, irrigation was made through rains or canal
or fountain etc. Without any effort by the farmer, one-tenth of
total produce is to be paid as Zakat.
If the field was irrigated by waterwheels, and other devices
for irrigation which involved labour; 5% of the total produce is
to be paid as Zakat.
And regarding the Zakat of animals, detailed study
of it may be had from the authentic ahadith of the
Prophet, or from scholars of ahadith, as we intended in
this booklet only a brief account of the subject.
Gold, Silver and Cash etc.
The minimum amount (nisab) of silver for the
Zakat to become due on it, is 140 (one hundred forty)
mithqal, which is equivalent to 595 (five hundred and
Ninety Five) grams.
And the nisab of gold is 20 (twenty) mithqal
which is equivalent to about 92 (Ninety-Two) grams.
The Zakat due on either gold or silver is one
fortieth (1/40 or 2.5%) of the total quantity / or the value,
provided one is in possession of the minimum amount of nisab,
mentioned above, of any one of them, and one lunar year has
passed after owning them.
The same ruling as in gold, holds good in the case of
currency notes, coins or bills of exchange as well, whether it
be Dirham, Dinar, Dollar, DM, Pound, Riyal or others, provided
its value reaches the minimum amount (nisab) of gold at
current market value, and one lunar year has passed over it.
When the above conditions are fulfilled, one-fortieth part (1/40
or 2.5%) of the total value would be given out as Zakat.
But as regards Zakat on the benefit derived from the
capital (i.e. Original amount), the condition of the passing one
lunar year, does not apply, The benefit would be included in the
capital (original amount) at the time of calculation for payment
of Zakat; and likewise the new births in grazing
animals will be added to the original number of animals for the
payment of Zakat, if the original number reaches the
Nisab and completes a lunar year without any
consideration of time passed over new births.
The same would apply to the ornaments of the women, made from
gold or silver for personal use or lending, when these reach the
Nisab and one lunar year has passed over them, in line
with the opinions of the authentic scholars in the light of
"If any owner of gold or silver does not pay Zakat due on
him, when the Day of Resurrection would come, plates of fire
would be beaten out for him; these would then be heated in the
fire of Hell and his sides, his forehead and his back would be
cauterized with them. Whenever these cool down, (the process
is) repeated during a day the extent of which would be fifty
thousand years, until judgment is pronounced among slaves."
It is narrated that once the Prophet, on seeing a woman with
two bracelets of gold in her hands, asked her whether she gave
out the Zakat of it, When she replied in negative, He,
said, "Would it please you if
Allah puts on you two bracelets made of fire. On hearing
this, she put off these and said, these are for
Allah and His Messenger."
Umm Salamah also narrated, May
Allah be pleased with her, that while she was wearing an
anklet of gold, she asked the Prophet, "O Messenger of
Allah! is it a Karz (a hoarded wealth)." The Prophet,
replied, "If it has been purified (by paying Zakat of it), it is
not a Karz (hoarded wealth)." Many other ahadith
also support this command.
Type of wealth
Cash ' Notes, Coins
Equivalent to gold
Produce of earth
675 Kilo grams
Irrigation 'rain, canal etc.,
Gold equivalent value
Commercial commodities and Land
As regards the Zakat on commercial commodities, the
owner should calculate its value at the end of every lunar year
and one-fortieth (1/40 or 2.5%) part of the current value would
be given out as Zakat. Whether its current value is
equal to the purchase value or more or less does not matter
In accordance with the Hadith narrated by Samurah,
Messenger, enjoined us to give out Sadaqa (Zakat) from
whatever we prepare for sale." (Abu Dawud)
This includes lands for resale, buildings, cars, machinery
for deriving water or any other article obtained for resale.
As for buildings constructed for rent but not for sale,
Zakat should be paid on the rent after one lunar year
passes over the amount; but the building itself is not liable
for Zakat as it is not an item for sale. Likewise,
personal cars and those for hire are not liable for Zakat
since they are not meant for sale as the owner has purchased it
for his use. If the owner of the rental cars accumulates the
returns up to the amount that is liable for Zakat, he
should pay Zakat if one lunar year passes over such
money whether he had kept it for personal expenses, or for
expenses in marriage, or for settling debts or buying real
estate or for any other purpose; this is in accordance with the
evidence of Shari،ah (Islamic laws) on the obligation
of Zakat. According to the authentic views of scholars,
debt cannot be an excuse for non-payment of Zakat.
Similar is the case for the wealth or money of orphans and
mentally retarded people; when it reaches the nisab and
one lunar year passes over it Zakat must be paid, and
the guardians should give out Zakat on their behalf
when a lunar year passes over the goods.
Allah categorizes those who deserve Zakat. He says:
"As-Sadaqa [here it means Zakat] are only
for the Fuqara [poor], and al-Masakin [the
poor] and those employed to collect [the funds] and to attract
the hearts of those who have been inclined [towards
and to free captives; and for those in debts; and for
Allah's cause [i.e. Mujahidun - those fighting in
the holy battles] and for the wayfarer [a traveller who is cut
off from everything]; a duty imposed by
Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise". (Qur'an 9:60)
Nobody has authority to change, add or remove any of these
above eight categories of people defined by
Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Lesson 31: How to wash a deceased Muslim
Preparing the body of the deceased as follows:
- When death is confirmed, the eyes of the deceased should
be closed and jaws should be tied shut.
- While washing the body, awrah - private parts,
should be covered, body should be slightly raised and stomach
be lightly pressed to get the waste out of it. Then the person
who washes, wraps his/her hands with a wash cloth or the like,
to clean the expelled. Then the washer should wash the
deceased as in wudu (ablution) for the salat
(obligatory prayer). The head and beard be washed with water
and sidr (Lote tree leaves) or soap. The right side
of the body be washed before the left side. The body can be
re-washed three times, and the last one should be with plain
Each time the stomach should be pressed. If there is any
excretion after the washing is completed, it should be washed
and the anus should be covered with cotton or the like. If it
does not work then plain earth or any medical device such as
plaster be used, the deceased, then, be washed again as in
If the washer feels that three washes are not enough (e.g.
bleeding) to clean the body properly, then it can be washed
five or seven times. The body should be dried with a clean
cloth and some wood oil perfume should be applied to the
hidden parts of the body and the sujud parts. It
would be better to apply wood perfume to the entire body of
the deceased and the coffin. The washer can clip the finger
nails, and trim the moustache of the deceased, but should not
comb the hair. If the deceased is a female, then her hair can
be plaited in three plaits and placed behind the back.
- Shrouding the body of the deceased (kafn.)
It is better to shroud the deceased man in three white
pieces of cloth without using a shirt or turban. The three
pieces should be rolled up together. It doesn't matter if
shrouded in a shirt and waist-sheet and a wrap.
The woman is shrouded in five pieces of cloths; a loose
piece of cloth (dir), a veil, a waist-sheet and two
wraps. The baby is shrouded in one to three pieces of cloth.
Young female is shrouded in a shirt and two wraps
- People who are (preferably) entitled to wash the deceased
man and pray for him and bury him are his male guardians .e.g.
father, the closest Kin and so forth. Similarly female
guardians are more entitled to wash a deceased female i.e. the
mother, grand mother, closest female relatives etc.,
The husband or wife can wash the deceased spouse, because
the dead body of Abu Bakr, was washed by his wife and Ali,
washed the body of his wife Fatima, May
Allah be pleased with her.
Lesson 32: How Funeral Prayer is Performed
Four Takbirs are uttered in the prayer.
- Uttering the first takbir and reciting "al
Fatihah". It is permissible to recite a Surah or one
or two ayat from the Qur'an, according to the Hadith
and reported by Ibn Abbas.
- Uttering the second takbir and sending
salutations to the Prophet, as in Tashah-hud.
- Uttering the third Takbir, and seeking
Allah. e.g. "O
Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, our present our
absent our young our old our males and our females. O
Allah! Whomsoever among us You keep to live, make him to
Islam, and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die in
Allah! Forgive him, have mercy on him, heal him, be
generous to him, cause his entrance to be wide and
comfortable, wash him with the most pure and clean water and
purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of
dirt. Give him in exchange a home better than his home (on
earth) and family better than his family, and let him into
Paradise and protect him from the trial of the grave and
torture of the Hell Fire. Make his grave wide and light it for
It is the
Sunnah of the Prophet
(saas), for the Imam to stand facing the qiblah, in
front of the head of a deceased male, and in front of the middle
of a deceased female body.
If there are more than one dead body, the male should be
placed immediately in front of the Imam, followed by the female
body. If there are children, the body of the male child should
be placed after the male body. If the dead includes a female
child, it should be placed after the older female body. The
bodies should be put in such a way that the head of the boy
should be in line with the head of the man. The female body
should be placed, behind the boy, in such a way that the middle
of the woman is in line with the head of the male. Similarly,
the body of the girl should be in line with the elder female,
and the middle of her body lies in line with the head of the
In this manner, the Imam stands in a position that the head
of all male deceased will be in front of the Imam.
People attending the funeral prayer should stand behind the
Imam, and if one cannot find enough space behind the Imam, he
can stand to the right of the Imam.
All Glory and Thanks to
Allah and Peace and Blessings be upon the Prophet, his
family and his Companions.
- English Translation of the meaning & commentary of THE
NOBLE QUR'AN: Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan & Dr. Muhammad
- The Most Important Lesson For Every Muslim (in Arabic) By:
Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Baz.
- The Book Of Prayer Compiled by: Nasif Adam
- Salaat according to the Manners of the Prophet Muhammad.
By : Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Baz.
in Focus By : Hammudah Abdulati
- The meaning of the testimony of faith "La Ilaha Ill Allah"
By : Sheikh Hamoud al-Lahim
- Kitab at-Tauhid By: Sheikhul-Islam Muhammad bin Abdullah
- Pillars Of
And Iman by Sheikh Muhammad Bin Jameel Zaino
- Lesson 11, Missing opening parenthesis in Second bullet of
Important points of the Lesson.
- Lesson 12, Missing closing parenthesis in Fifth bullet of
Important points of the Lesson.
- Lesson 16, All instances of Impure (Tahur) should be
changed to Impure (Najis).
- All translations of the Qur'an are Bold.
- All Translations of the Ahadith are Italicized.
Comments on this book are highly appreciated. Please send
your comments and opinions to the following address.
Attention: Abdul Aziz S. Al Shoumar
Al Haramain Islamic Foundation
PO Box: 92684,
Riyadh - 11663
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia